Vitiligo or Pes – acquired disorders of pigmentation of the skin characterized by the appearance of any part of it, except the palms and soles, clearly defined, devoid of pigment spots round or irregular in shape, surrounded by rim of hyperpigmentation. According to the cosmetology, vitiligo is 3-4% of all dermatoses. The disease is not accompanied by subjective feelings, but is a cosmetic defect and, if depigmented spots located on exposed skin, especially on the face, hurt psyche patient. The disease begins at a young age, often occurs in children. The etiology and pathogenesis of vitiligo in the present study did not to the end. The pigment melanin is produced in the skin of humans and animals to adapt and protect against ultraviolet radiation (UVR). It is synthesized from tyrosine in the melanocytes, have large numbers of organemelanosom containing melanin, which is concentrated around the nucleus keratinatsitov. In the presence of the enzyme tyrosinase tyrosine formed initially dihydroxyphenylalanine, then dioksifenilalaninhinon.
To activate the tyrosinase requires molecular oxygen, copper ions and UV irradiation. Copper ions and UV effect on lysosomal enzymes that degrade glutathione, peptidase-blocking tyrosinase. Polymerization products of oxidation of tyrosine takes place in the presence zinc ions. In cells, melanin is not in the free state and bound to proteins in the form of melanoproteina. At the beginning of the disease melanocytes still retained, but do not produce pigment. Over time, foci of depigmentation they almost completely disappear, with the exception of hyperpigmented rim on the periphery, where the activity of melanocytes and melanin content podvysheno.